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feralpigeon feralpigeon is offline
Posted 12th August 2007, 01:23 PM
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The Nitroimidazoles and other Therapeutic Agents Reviewed


We frequently discuss the antibiotic properties of Metronidazole here at PT,
and wonder about the rest of the family and where they stand in terms of antibiotic activity against anaerobic bacteria.

This link from Merck's has some good information on this family
of medications. Apparently Metronidazole has been studied the most which would explain why we hear about it more frequently as a treatment for anaerobic bacteria, though others in the family apparently do also. There may be other considerations in terms of what each member has to offer in treating for organisms such histomoniasisas. The article also has links to other families of medications routinely used in the treatment of pigeons listed at the bottom left of the page.:

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/in...284.htm&hide=1

"The 5-nitroimidazoles are a group of drugs that have both antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Nitroimidazoles with activity against trichomonads and amebae include metronidazole, tinidazole, nimorazole, flunidazole, and ronidazole. Metronidazole and nimorazole are effective in the treatment of giardiasis, while dimetridazole, ipronidazole, and ronidazole control histomoniasis in poultry. Several nitroimidazoles have activity against trypanosomes. Metronidazole, ronidazole, and other nitroimidazoles are active against anaerobic bacteria. Metronidazole is the compound that has been the most studied and is discussed as the prototype of the group.

Metronidazole:

This has been used for many years in the therapeutic management of trichomoniasis, giardiasis, and amebiasis. It is active against obligate anaerobic bacteria. It is not active against facultative anaerobes, obligate aerobes, or microaerophilic bacteria other than Campylobacter fetus and Corynebacterium vaginalis . At concentrations readily attained in serum after PO or parenteral administration, metronidazole is active against Bacteroides fragilis , B melaninogenicus , Fusobacterium spp , and Clostridium perfringens and other Clostridium spp . It is generally less active against nonsporeforming, gram-positive bacilli such as Actinomyces , Propionibacterium , Bifidobacterium , and Eubacterium spp . Metronidazole is also somewhat less active against gram-positive cocci such as Peptostreptococcus and Peptococcus spp , but the less sensitive strains are usually not obligate anaerobes.

Metronidazole is bactericidal at concentrations equal to or slightly higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration. The precise mode of action is unclear, but it seems that after the drug enters a susceptible organism it is first reduced and then binds to DNA, causing loss of the helical structure, strand breakage, and impairment of DNA function. Only susceptible organisms (bacteria and protozoa) appear to be capable of metabolizing the drug.
The pharmacokinetic pattern of metronidazole generally follows that expected of a highly lipid-soluble basic drug. It is readily but variably absorbed from the GI tract (bioavailability 60-100%), with serum concentrations peaking within 1-2 hr, and becomes widely distributed in all tissues. Metronidazole penetrates the blood-brain barrier and also attains therapeutic concentrations in abscesses and in empyema fluid. It is only slightly bound to plasma proteins. Biotransformation is quite extensive, and parent drug and metabolites are excreted by both the renal and biliary routes. The elimination half-life in dogs is ~4.5 hr, and in horses, 1.5-3.3 hr.
The principal clinical indications for metronidazole include the treatment of specific protozoal infections (amebiasis, trichomoniasis, giardiasis, and balantidiasis) and anaerobic bacterial infections such as those that may be seen in abdominal abscesses, peritonitis, empyema, genital tract infections, periodontitis, otitis media, osteitis, arthritis, and meningitis, and in necrotic tissue. Metronidazole has been successfully used to prevent infection after colonic surgery. Nitroimidazoles also act as radiosensitizers, and metronidazole has been used as an adjunct to the radiotherapy of solid tumors.
Side effects are not commonly associated with metronidazole. High doses may induce signs of neurotoxicity in dogs, such as tremors, muscle spasms, ataxia, and even convulsions. Reversible bone marrow depression has been reported. The drug should not be used in pregnant animals, particularly during the first trimester, although the evidence for carcinogenicity and mutagenicity is still tenuous. Metronidazole may produce a reddish brown discoloration of the urine due to unidentified pigments."

I intentionally left off the dose rate for canines at the end of the article
so as not to confuse anyone.

fp
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Charis's Avatar
Charis Charis is offline
Posted 12th August 2007, 01:34 PM
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[I intentionally left off the dose rate for canines at the end of the article
so as not to confuse anyone.]


What?!!
Is there an English translation?
Should I take it or give it to the dog?
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feralpigeon's Avatar
feralpigeon feralpigeon is offline
Posted 12th August 2007, 01:39 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Charis View Post
.......
What?!!
Is there an English translation?
Should I take it or give it to the dog?
Errr, ummmm, I don't know, do you lift one of your appendages to
eliminate?

fp
 
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AZWhitefeather AZWhitefeather is offline
Posted 12th August 2007, 01:47 PM
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Thanks for taking the time to research & post this information fp.

I'm going to put this thead in the 'sticky' section.

Cindy
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pdpbison pdpbison is offline
Posted 12th August 2007, 02:32 PM
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Hi fp,



Nice information which fills out the profile very well.



Phil
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