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175 Posts
Discussion Starter · #1 ·
Hii guys. I've recently rescued 2 pigeons and added them with my old 2 fantails. Now I have 4 pigeons in total. I was wondering what can be the natural remedy to improve their immunity? I've heard neem leaves being used, but I'm not sure how I can use them. And ACV.

I was wondering what do you guys do to improve your pets immunity. And can they be used with doves too?

926 Posts
I recommend:

I would not give ACV to them.

175 Posts
Discussion Starter · #3 ·
I recommend:

I would not give ACV to them.
We don't have this vitamin in Pakistan sadly...
Which one of this do you recommend?


1,241 Posts
Damn, that is a lot of vitamin A though! 10,000 IU is 3,000 micrograms, which as a daily amount is sufficient to cause vitamin A toxicity in ADULT HUMANS!
What to Know About Vitamin A
Convert IU to mg or mcg with our easy calculators for Vitamins A, D, and E - VITAMENTOR

The Vitasol product states 2,000,000 IU vitamin A per 100 grams.
2,000,000 IU / 100 = 20,000 IU per gram.

Why not give fresh chopped peppers, chili powder, paprika, or pepper seeds in their diet? They have plenty of vitamin A and beta carotinoids / beta carotene, plus any bird can choose to eat more or less of them. I don't know about pet birds, but the feral pigeons here get very choosy about which seeds they eat, once they aren't starving.

One teaspoon (2 grams) of chili powder supplies 741 IU of vitamin A which is 15% of the US RDA for an ADULT HUMAN.
Spices, chili powder Nutrition Facts & Calories

By weight, I am the equivalent of about 200 pigeons. A single bit of a raw bell pepper, or just one pepper seed, per day would quite likely be more than enough vitamin A for a dove -- and it is in a natural form that is less likely to lead to overdose / toxicity.


799 Posts
Hi, Virkon-S is a disinfectant it has no vitamins in it at all but you can put it in the drinking water im posting a story on virkon s some natural remedys are acv with the mother i use it once a week on my birds, garlic oil if you can get it where you live and garlic cloves get a small garlic press put a clove in it and squez use 3 or 4 cloves in the water jug shake it up and your good to go, i also use elderberry extract in the water that is one of the best immune boosters i also use red cell its not an immune booster but it has a lot of vitamins and minerals in it which all birds need,
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these things will keep your birds healthy
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1,241 Posts
^ I alternate their drinking water using tiny amounts of Apple Cider Vinegar (any brand which includes "the mother" is probiotic) and tiny amounts of lemon juice because lemon juice is a natural prebiotic. The idea being that ACV supplies beneficial bacteria, then the lemon juice supplies nutrients that aid those bacteria. Both fluids are somewhat acidic which adversely affect harmful bacteria. ACV doesn't offer much in the way of vitamins, and only small amounts of minerals, but lemon juice offers a broad range of both.

I should add that the birds I am feeding at home are always wounded and/or ill feral pigeons. I try to provide a broad range of nutrients because Heaven only knows what the birds were eating (if even much of anything) before I brought them home!

Cider vinegar nutrition info

Lemon juice nutrition info

1,241 Posts
Conclusions: The antibacterial and antifungal activities of commonly used spices have been summarized. Several spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—have exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against food spoilage bacteria like B. subtilis and P. fluorescens; pathogens like S. aureus, V. parahaemolyticus, and S. typhimurium; harmful fungi like A. flavus and A. niger; and even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as MRSA. Therefore, these spices could be used to decrease the possibility of food poisoning and spoilage, to increase the food safety and shelf-life of products, and to treat some infectious diseases. In the future, as the combinations of several spices were proven to possess higher inhibitory effects on specific bacteria than those of individual spices, the interactions of more spices should be studied and evaluated to inhibit different microorganisms in different food products. Additionally, spices could be used in food packaging as published, but more studies are required to take the other aspects into consideration, such as how to prevent odor/flavor transferring from packages containing natural spice extracts to the packaged foods. Furthermore, spice products may be considered as an alternative to common antibiotics to treat infectious diseases. As the majority of the studies focused on the in vitro activities of spices against human pathogenic bacteria, in vivo studies and clinical trials are needed to be conducted in future. The mechanisms of antimicrobial action of spices remain to be clarified in order to make the best use of spices. Furthermore, the potential toxicity of spices on humans should be evaluated.

herbal medicines such as clove, portulaca, tribulus, eryngium, cinnamon, turmeric, ginger, thyme, pennyroyal, mint, fennel, chamomile, burdock, eucalyptus, primrose, lemon balm, mallows, and garlic can eliminate bacteria by acting as a free radical scavenger. The antibacterial activity of these herbal medicines is different toward various kinds of bacteria
Based on the high antimicrobial and antioxidant ability of these herbal medicines, they can be beneficial for healing all types of wounds.

Continue scrolling down for more specifics in several additional posts below.

1,241 Posts
Green tea and "Persian lime" vs yeast
Both have been found to have strong anti-fungal properties, and to effectively fight at least one strain of yeast (Candida albicans.)
^ Caffeine is apparently harmful to birds in some quantity. Green tea does contain caffeine. Decaffinated green tea is available which has less caffeine. It would probably be best to use either no green tea, or at least very diluted green tea for birds.

Boric acid or nystatin vs yeast
"Cure rates for boric acid were 92% at 7 to 10 days after treatment and 72% at 30 days, whereas the nystatin cure rates were 64% at 7 to 10 days and 50% at 30 days."

Garlic or metronidazole vs Canker / Trichomonas
"It is concluded that garlic is as efficient as MTZ in inhibiting the growth of Trichomonas gallinae trophozoites in culture and in infected pigeons. Garlic possesses more advantage of being much safer than MTZ as it showed improvement of some biochemical parameters. So, garlic (200 mg/kg BW) is the drug of choice as safe prophylaxis against trichomoniasis in pigeons."

Essential oil of guava (leaves) or metronidazole vs Canker / Trichomonas
EO of guava showed a good anti-trichomonal activity, and at the concentration of 6.25 after 24 h killed 81% of trophozoites while the standard anti-trichomonal medication, metronidazole, killed 84% of trophozoites.
http://tru.uni-sz.bg/bjvm/2021-0127 OnFirst.pdf

Turmeric or metronidazole vs Trichomonas
"Curcumin eradicated 100% T. vaginalis cells at the concentration of 400 μg/mL in 24 h. The EC50 ranged from 73.0 to 105.8 μg/mL, while the EC90 from 164.9 to 216.3 μg/mL. Although in comparison to metronidazole, curcumin was found to be effective at a higher concentration, curcumin is well tolerated without any side effects in contrast to metronidazole."

Ginger extract or Nystatin vs oral / upper-GI yeast infection showed same suppression of yeast growth after 48 hours use of either.
"The ginger extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans."
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Neem vs yeast and Streptococcus
"Neem leaf extract exhibited considerable potential to be an efficacious antimicrobial agent against both Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans."

Neem vs Newcastle Disease Virus (Avian Paramyxovirus-1 PPMV-1 PMV)
"Surprisingly, neem leaf extract demonstrated anti- ND virus (NDV) properties by reducing NDV-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in mice compared with uninfected controls, while administering Burtt (Commiphora swynnertonii) extract resulted in significantly lower mortality rates based on clinical symptoms and antibody titer."

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra leaf extract) vs Newcastle Disease Virus (Avian Paramyxovirus-1 PPMV-1 PMV)
"The current results have clearly verified that all the extracts especially that of methanol 300µg/mL from leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra have strong antiviral activity against NDV in vivo."

Licorice and Aloe Vera vs Newcastle Disease Virus (Avian Paramyxovirus-1 PPMV-1 PMV)
"The results of this study indicate that both aloe vera and licorice extracts inhibit PPMV-1 replication in pigeons. The aloe vera dose of 300 mg/kg BW was characterized by the highest inhibitory activity. Our findings suggest that aloe vera and licorice extracts can be used as feed additives during supportive treatment of viral diseases in pigeons."

Licorice and Aloe Vera vs Newcastle Disease Virus (Avian Paramyxovirus-1 PPMV-1 PMV)
"This results indicate that Aloe vera and licorice extracts have immunomodulatory properties and can be used successfully to prevent viral diseases, enhance immunity and as supplementary treatment for viral diseases in pigeons."

Yarrow and thyme vs Newcastle Disease Virus (Avian Paramyxovirus-1 PPMV-1 PMV)
"Inhibition percentage was determined as 10 (1.75), which indicated the ability of the extracts to reduce the viral potency by more than 56 folds. Conclusions: Both plants were found effective against Newcastle disease virus."

Clove and cinnamon extracts vs yeast
"The combination of clove and cinnamon extracts, at concentrations of 256 and 32 µg/mL, respectively, exhibited additive effect with 99.45% growth inhibition detected at FICI of 1. Most importantly, no regrowth of C. albicans was observed upon exposure to clove and cinnamon extracts over 24 h."

Origanum (oregano, marjoram) and carvacrol (oregano, thyme) oil vs yeast
"The daily administration of 8.6 mg of origanum oil in 100 microl of olive oil/kg body weight for 30 days resulted in 80% survivability, with no renal burden of C. albicans as opposed to the group of mice fed olive oil alone, who died within 10 days. Similar results were obtained with carvacrol. However, mice fed origanum oil exhibited cosmetically better clinical appearance compared to those cured with carvacrol."

Black pepper (Piperine, found in black/white/green peppercorns) vs yeast
"Altogether, results from this study reveals the potential of piperine to inhibit biofilm and hyphal morphogenesis, and its in vivo efficacy and innocuous nature to HBECs suggests that piperine may be considered as a potential candidate for the treatment of biofilm-associated C. albicans infection, especially for oral candidiasis."

Apple Cider Vinegar vs E. Coli, S. Aureus (staph), and yeast in lab tests. (They aren't testing the efficacy of any beneficial bacteria / yeast in ACV dietary supplements over time, rather only the immediate (24 hour) effect of ACV on live cultures of harmful bacteria. Some bacteria were killed by ACV on contact, others were harmed and weakened. )
"In order to determine the anti-microbial activity of ACV, E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans were directly cultured with different concentrations of ACV. Figure 1 represents the experimental results. The minimum dose required to restrict growth for C. albicans was neat, undiluted ACV (5% acidity), for S. aureus it was a 1/2 dilution (2.5% acidity) and for E-coli, growth was restricted at a significantly lower dilution of 1/50 (equivalent to 0.1% acidity)."

Apple Cider Vinegar vs yeast / Candida
"After 30 minutes of exposure, apple cider vinegar showed fungicidal effect at MICx4, whereas nystatin maintained its fungistatic effect. Apple cider vinegar showed greater inhibition of adherence (p < 0.001) compared to control." ... "Apple cider vinegar showed antifungal properties against Candida spp., thus representing a possible therapeutic alternative for patients with denture stomatitis."

Apple Cider Vinegar vs yeast / Candida
"The ACV was given for seven days, twice per day. A swab for the candida was taken before and after treatment. Upon counting the candida, it showed a remarkable drop in count from 100/cm2 before the therapy to 6/cm2 post therapy. The result was the reduction in the candidal count by 94%. Therefore, the study concluded the high potency of ACV in acting as an antimicrobial and as an antifungal."

Apple Cider Vinegar vs antibiotic resistant Staph and E. coli
"a 21.2%, and 33.5% increase in monocyte phagocytic capacity was observed after MRSA or rE. coli co-culture with ACV (1:25 concentration) respectively and in comparison, to the resting unstimulated monocytes. The results were comparable to commonly prescribed antibiotics to these infections such as clindamycin or trimethoprim."
"ACV had toxic effects on microbes but reassuringly did not affect the integrity of human monocytes in our experiments. To note ACV should be consumed diluted in a little water or juice as it could burn the throat, otherwise no known toxicity or side effects have been reported due to its consumption."
"We conclude that ACV can have powerful anti-microbial effects directly on resistant E. coli and MRSA. Mode of action seems to involve an alteration in the pathogenic physiology of the microbes."
"ACV inhibition of bacterial growth is comparable to the inhibition shown by trimethoprim and clindamycin which are typical antibiotics used to treat clinical E. coli and MRSA infections respectively"

Ginger extract vs coccidiosis
The previous studies had shown a good effect ginger extract against Schistosoma mansoni and Angiostrongylus contonensis [17,18] , and also the present study had shown that 10% ginger extract given twice daily for two days lead to disappear of oocystes completely from faeces of 10 birds out of 11 birds had been treated

Chamomile as antibacterial and antifungal vs yeast
Fifty percent of cell death occurred by CPe at 16 and 36 h in the case of bacteria and fungi, and was most effective in reducing living colonies in case of C. albicans (1.73 ± 0.15 CFU/mL) after 48 h of treatment.

Matricaria recutita chamomile - antibacterial and antidiarrheal
The antibacterial effect of the fractions of chamomile was evaluated against two gram-negative bacteria. Results confirmed its antibacterial effect through its main essential oil components, including coumarin, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids (53)
Results showed that extracts of this plant have a strong antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties in rats in a dose-dependent manner against castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal fluid accumulation (57).

Roman Chamomile and in vivo Wound Healing
Antibacterial and wound healing activities of C. nobile ointment were more than tetracycline ointment significantly. Our results indicated that extract of C. nobile had effective antibacterial activity and accelerated the progression of wound healing.

Manuka honey and Acacia honey for wound healing
"Honey can be used as biological wound dressings based on its various physical, chemical, and biological properties. To achieve proper wound healing, honey needs to be present at the wound interface at all the times to allow effective anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and immunostimulatory action. Our study has shown excellent wound healing properties with both the types of honey (acacia and manuka), though it was better with the manuka honey. Plenty of case reports supports the evidence of using manuka honey in wound healing, especially in chronic and nonhealing leg ulcers. This study provides evidence in favor of manuka honey with respect to enhanced wound healing, especially in the diabetic condition where wound healing is delayed. Therefore, medicated creams and wound dressings containing manuka factor and honey (especially manuka honey) can be used to provide effective and faster wound healing."

Turmeric for wound healing
"In curcumin-treated mice, the wounds underwent gradual and progressive healing, which reached complete closure by day 12 after wounding (Figure 1A). In contrast, the control group showed a marked delay in wound closure."

Sesame oil vs yeast
"The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of sesame oil, which is widely used for cooking in Asian countries, and two other edible oils on the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans, a causative microorganism of oral thrush. We assessed the effect of each oil in concentrations of 0.078%, 0.156%, and 0.313% on growth of the mycelial forms of the clinical isolates over 24 hr using the crystal violet method. We also evaluated the effect of each oil on growth of the yeast forms by counting the number of viable yeast cells after culturing in the oils for 24 hr. Sesame oil inhibited the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms. Safflower and olive oil also inhibited the growth of both forms of C. albicans but to a lesser extent than sesame oil."

Turmeric vs E. coli, and as an aid to friendly bacteria / probiotics
"Increased the Lactobacilli counts and minimized E. coli level"

Jatropha, Jojoba, Clove, and Ginger vs Salmonella, Staph, and Bacillus Cereus
"According to the results given in (Table I), Jatropha, Jojoba, Clove and Ginger plant extracts showed high bacterial activity in the first screening step. Therefore, the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of these four medicinal plants were selected to be tested against Bacillus cereus (Gram+), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram+) and Salmonella typhimurium (Gram−) and their antibacterial effect was comparable to the antibiotics used as control."

Oregano, basil, marigold, corn silk, laurel, rosemary, spearmint, and thyme vs Salmonella
"All of the [aqueous] extracts tested inhibited or reduced Salmonella strains when in vitro examined. However, the susceptibility of the strains was mainly affected by incubation temperature and plant extract. At 37 °C, incubation in the extracts caused either inactivation / reduction or growth inhibition of the strains."

Matricaria recutita chamomile and moringa vs antibiotic resistant bacteria
"Forty isolates (40%) of pure bacterial cultures were detected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the predominant agent isolated from the wound infections (32.5%) followed by Staphylococcus spp. (25%), E. coli (20%), Klebsiella spp. (20%), and Proteus mirabilis (2.5%)."
"Out of the 40 bacterial strains studied, 20 isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR), 7 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and 3 were pan drug-resistant (PDR). The in vitro susceptibility test showed that the water, ethanol (95%), and methanol (80%) extracts of Moringa oleifera L. (leaves) and Matricaria recutita L. (flowers) produced an inhibitory effect against 12 resistant MDR, XDR, and PDR test isolates, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 7.8–62.5 mg/ml."

Garlic vs Salmonella
"The basic ground for selecting AGE for this study was because of high concentration of allicin (antibacterial component) as compared to other extracts (Jabar and Al-Mossawi, 2007). AGE could be conveniently utilized in-vivo studies (Kemper, 2000). The major drawbacks in its use are that the amount of allicin decreases with time. Thus it cannot be preserved for longer time and its antibacterial properties also decline with the age of extract. Therefore, fresh AGE should be prepared each time before its use (Pranoto et al., 2005)." ... "Aqueous garlic extract was found to be inhibitory against the isolates of S. typhi"

Aloe Vera, Amaranthus hybridus (a type of Amaranth), and Adhatoda vasica (also known as Malabar nut, adulsa, vasa, vasaka) vs multi-drug resistant Salmonella
"Higher antibacterial potential was exhibited by Adhatoda vasica and Amaranthus hybridus leafy part extracts with 8 mm and 10.5 mm zones of inhibition against S. enterica serovar Typhi. Methanolic extract of Aloe barbadensis leaves showed 4.5 mm inhibition zone against the same pathogen (Table 7). Maximum zones of inhibition have been detected against Salmonella typhi by leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis, Amaranthus hybridus and Adhatoda vasica"

Oregano, Thyme, and Lactobacillus fermentum vs Salmonella
"Figure 1 shows that combined administration of L. fermentum and essential oils (LOT group) reduced the percentage of colonized crops and ceca by 86% and 57%, respectively, when compared to the control group. Administration of L. fermentum alone (L group) or essential oils (OT group) reduced the percentage of colonized crops by 43% and 57% in comparison to the control. The percentage of invasion of the liver and spleen was 57% and 43%, respectively, in the control group. No invasion was observed in the livers and spleens of the LOT group"
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... "In our trial, in group LOT (combination of the Lactobacillus strain and a blend of essential oils) we obtained the best results in decrease of the salmonella strain colonization in all examined organs. Our results showed that the combined administration of L. fermentum and essential oils from oregano and thyme seemed to be an effective to inhibit the colonization of gastrointestinal tract by S. enterica var. D¨usseldorf in chicks."

Cumin vs bacteria (E. Coli, Staph, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and yeast / fungi (Aspergillus flavus, C. albicans and Cryptococcus sp.)
"The Cumin oil exhibits a strong antibacterial activity against four clinical bacterial isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and strong to moderate antifungal activity against three fungal isolates (Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus sp.)"

1,241 Posts
Anise, Ginger, and Rosemary vs bacteria and fungi
"The results obtained from this work showed that plant extracts exhibit antibacterial and antifungal effects. In ethanol extracts of all plant extracts offer effective bioactive compounds for growth inhibition of the bacteria and fungi. Even at low concentrations, these species showed antibacterial and antifungal activity."

Coriander (Cilantro) as antibacterial
"Coriander essential oil has been reported to inhibit a broad spectrum of micro-organisms (Delaquis et al., 2002; Duman et al., 2010; Lo Cantore et al., 2004) [...] All strains studied were inhibited by coriander oil, with different degrees of inhibition. B. cereus was the most sensitive strain along with one of the multidrug-resistant clinical strains of A. baumannii"

Coriander seed as anti-cancer, antiviral, and antioxidant
"Based on the results from this study, the hexane, methanol and aqueous extracts of C. sativum seeds demonstrated anti-cancer and antiviral effects while the hexane and methanol extracts demonstrated antioxidant potency."... "The results from this study indicate that the seeds of C. sativum possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors. The anticancer and antiviral properties of C. sativum are effective and can be used as easily accessible source in pharmaceutical industry"

Flax (seed oil) vs antibiotic resistant bacteria, and as aid in wound healing
"However, variable effects were developed against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Klebsiella pneuminae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The flaxseed exhibited antibiofilm activity against all tested bacterial isolates (MSSA, MRSA, S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae) and showed various degrees of inhibition against them. Experimental wounds were healed by application of flaxseed oil. In conclusion, flaxseed oil is a good alternative medication can be used to treat wound infection caused by bacteria." ... "The present work emphasizes the role of a natural plant product, flaxseed oil, in inhibiting of bacterial infections as well as helps in eradication biofilm formed by these pathogens. What’s more, flaxseed oil cured wound infections caused by these pathogens."

Lactose or fructo-digosaccharides (such as pectin in lemon juice) as prebiotic in drinking water to improve digestion
"A trial with dietary carbohydrases supplementation in breeding pigeons could not demonstrate better growth rates of the squabs, but changes in water intake gave indications for improved excreta consistency, which is important from a prophylactic viewpoint (Janssens et al., 2001). Fructo-digosaccharides or lactose were recently tested as prebiotic drinking water supplements (Janssens et al., unpublished results), but failed to inhibit salmonellosis in artificially infected pigeons. Nevertheless, both supplements restored fibre digestibility significant quicker after the pigeons had recovered from salmonellosis, indicating a positive action in the long intestine."

Ginger, Turmeric, Coriander, and Bay leaves (Laurel) vs Salmonella, E. coli, Staph, and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

"Ginger and turmeric are effective against all four pathogens. Ginger reported maximum activity against Escherichia coli with 14.5 zones of inhibition at 100% concentration. Bay leaf showed comparatively good antibacterial activity at higher concentrations and possessed maximum antibacterial activity against Salmonella Typhi with 15.4 zones of inhibition at 100% concentration. Coriander unveils comparatively good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus Aureus at higher concentrations." ... "All four spices exhibited antimicrobial activity against most pathogens, but the antimicrobial activity varies widely, depending on the type of spices and microorganisms."

Cumin, Garlic, Cinnamon, Turmeric, and Ginger as antioxidants
"The results obtained using three different methods to evaluate the antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP and TPC) showed that the spice extracts used in the present study can be considered good sources of natural compounds with significant antioxidant activity."
"The present study indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts of the spices have got profound antibacterial and antioxidant effect"

Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), or Metronidazole (MTZ) vs antibiotic resistant Trichomonas gallinae (Canker)
"Our in vitro study showed that, in a period of 24 hr, there were no trichomonads after adding the ginger extract (25.00 μg mL-1) to the culture medium" ...
" It could be observed that the extracts of Z. officinale and L. angustifolia had a higher rate of anti-trichomonal action on T. gallinae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Z. officinale extract equaled 25.00 μg mL-1 in 24 hr, while it was 50.00 μg mL-1 for MTZ. These values were 25.00 and 10.00 μg mL-1 for Z. officinale in 48 and 72 hr, respectively. It is interesting to note that MIC for 48 and 72 hr was obtained as 25.00 and 10.00 μg mL-1 for MTZ. The 24 hr MIC value for L. angustifolia extract was 50.00 μg mL-1. The study showed that L. angustifolia with the MIC of 50.00 μg mL-1 was able to eradicate all living T. gallinae in 48 hr, while the period for the MIC of 10.00 μg mL-1 was 72 hr" ... "Metronidazole is a widely used drug for the treatment of trichomoniasis, but some isolates of T. gallinae are resistant to drugs, which can be hazardous to free-living birds. 34 These isolates are reported in various countries like Spain, Belgium, USA, and Iran. 3,4,33,49 Our study showed that Z. officinale and L. angustifolia extracts were the best alternatives to be used for treating the isolates."

Garlic and Ginger, or amprolium hydrochloride vs coccidiosis
"The results showed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly (P < .05) high in ginger and garlic supplemented birds compared to the positive control. Similarly, oocysts shedding, lesion score and histopathology of the small intestines improved in ginger and garlic supplemented birds after induced-infection in broiler. The findings of the present study showed that ginger and garlic produced encouraging results in comparison to amprolium in broiler chickens infected with experimental coccidiosis."

Oregano and Garlic vs coccidiosis
"The results showed that both oregano and garlic possess very strong anticoccidial activity in vitro, evidenced by the inhibition of sporozoite invasion at the higher concentrations tested, potentially caused by a toxic effect that left few parasites fit to invade cells. Oregano essential oil exhibited an effect comparable with robenidine, a well-known anticoccidiostat. The same high essential oil concentration did not show any deleterious effects on the host cells based upon a microscopic assessment of cell morphology within the monolayer." ... "Our in vitro results were complemented by in vivo findings with broiler chickens raised in the absence of in-feed anticoccidials or antibiotics. In our study, the baseline performance level of the broiler flock can be regarded as high, with apparently low environmental stress and limited pathogen challenge. Nonetheless, the group of chickens that received oregano and garlic essential oils demonstrated higher performance as indicated by weight gain, feed-to-gain ratio, and also by lower levels of fecal oocyst excretion. These results are consistent with previous studies with challenged broilers" ... "In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that diet inclusion of oregano and garlic essential oils can improve growth performance in broiler chickens and reduce Eimeria oocyst output by exerting a coccidiostatic effect, supported by in vitro tests using E. tenella. Oregano and garlic essential oils exerted positive effects on the intestinal microbiota, supporting interactions between diet-mediated alterations in the microbiota and chicken growth and performance. Although it is difficult to extrapolate in vitro results to in vivo, the present study shows that in vitro inhibition of parasite invasion correlates well with in vivo findings. This study provides credible evidence that the hypothesis of rearing broilers without anticoccidial drugs or ionophores is possible."

Thyme, Eucalyptus, or amprolium hydrochloride vs coccidiosis
"In conclusion, thymol can be safely used to control pigeon coccidiosis as a natural effective compound." ... "Microscopic examination and counting of the oocysts treated by 5 % and 10 % of thymol, eucalyptus and amprolium caused deformed oocysts with cracked wall and lysis (Supplementary Fig. 1). The destruction percentage was 96.00, 39.33, and 97.33 %, respectively in 10 % concentration of thymol, eucalyptus and amprolium respectively. In case of thymol, the destruction of oocysts decreased in the lower concentrations to reach its minimum effect at 0.625 % but still significant (Table 1)."

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita Leaves), or albendazole vs roundworms
"All used doses of CME [Chamomile methanolic extract] showed a potent anthelmintic activity both in vitro and in vivo and the effect being similar to treatment with albendazole." ... "extract treatment alleviated all the deleterious effects associated with H. polygyrus infection. Conclusion These findings suggest that CME can be used in the control of gastrointestinal helminthiasis and associated oxidative stress."

Nigella Sativa (also known as: black cumin, black caraway, kalonji, fennel flower, nutmeg flower, Roman coriander) or Butalex vs Pigeon Malaria (Haemoproteus Columbae)
"The results showed a high therapeutic effect for MENS (methanolic extracts of Nigella sativaL. seeds) with a progressive decrease in average parasitaemia rate from 18.17% before treatment to 0.73% at the end of treatment (p<0.05), while Butalex® was able to suppress the parasitemia rate from 18.90% before treatment to 0.23% at the end of experiment (p<0.05)."

Eugenol (found in clove, nutmeg, cinnamon, basil, and bay leaf) or Butalex vs Pigeon Malaria (Haemoproteus Columbae)
"The results showed a significant therapeutic effect of Eugenol, with a progressive decrease in the number of infected RBCs [red blood cells] from 89.20 ± 2.11 before treatment to 0.90 ± 0.31 at the end of treatment (P≤0.05). Butalex® was able to suppress the number of infected RBCs from 93.70 ± 1.72 before treatment to 0.90 ± 0.35 at the end of the experiment (P≤0.05)."

Thyme or metronidazole vs Canker
"The results showed same result of thyme plant extracts in comparison with dose to kill and metronidazole of Trichomonas [gallinae] to destroy the same and in cases of drug resistance to metronidazole view is that this plant extract can be used instead."

Thyme, Myrrh, or albendazole vs Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis)
"Effects of albendazole, thyme, and myrrh against adult worms - A significant decrease in the mean number of adult worms was obtained in all treated groups (p < 0.01). The least count was found in group B which received albendazole with efficacy of 94.2% followed by group D which received myrrh with efficacy of 90.3%. The least reduction in the number of adult worms was observed in thyme-treated group (group C) with efficacy of 79.4%" ...
"Effects of albendazole, thyme, and myrrh against encysted larvae - A significant decrease in the mean larval count was detected in all treated groups (p < 0.01). The best reduction of larval count was found in group B which received albendazole with efficacy of 90.9%, followed by group D which received myrrh with efficacy of 79.6%. The least reduction was detected in group C which received thyme with efficacy of 71.3%"

Black pepper (piperine) as antibacterial vs Staph, E. coli, Salmonella, and Bacillus subtilis
"The results showed that piperine is an excellent antibacterial agent with all tested bacteria."

Black pepper (piperine), or streptomycin, or erythromycin vs bacteria and yeast
"In the present study piperine exhibited maximum effect against C. albicans and E. coli." ... "piperine has higher antimicrobial activity against E. coli and P. vulgaris in compare to erythromycin and streptomycin" ... "piperine showed higher antimicrobial activity against K. pneumoniea in compare to Erythromycin"
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Black pepper (piperine) vs E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus sp., and Staph
"The antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Piper nigrum showed against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus where as Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed resistant"

1,241 Posts
Cilantro / Coriander leaves vs Salmonella
"Aldehyde compounds from the fresh leaves of coriander are effective against Salmonella choleraesuis, according to researchers from the University of California, USA and Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara, Mexico. The research showed the most effective compound, (2E)-dodecenal, was twice as potent as a commonly used medicinal antibiotic, gentamicin, against Salmonella."

Cumin vs Newcastle Disease Virus (Avian Paramyxovirus-1 PPMV-1 PMV) and Avian Influenza
"Interestingly, the inclusion of CSO [cumin seed oil] in laying hens' diets improved the antibody titres against Newcastle disease (ND, p < .05) and against avian influenza H9N1 (p > .05) when compared with the control diet. It could be concluded that dietary inclusion of CSO improved egg weight, FCR, yolk and shell quality characteristics and did not have a negative effect on the reproductive morphology parameters in laying hens."

Neem, or levamisole vs ascariasis (dewormer for Ascaridia galli intestinal worms)
"Neem leaves extract showed gradual increase of efficacy up to day 14th and 21st of treatment. Post-mortem worm count revealed that neem leaves extract showed considerable efficacy against worm burden. The aqueous extract of plant did not show any adverse effect on haematological parameter and physiological condition of treated birds but increase values TEC, Hb and PCV were observed in chicken after treatment with levamisole"

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) vs Schistosoma mansoni (intestinal worms)
"In summary, FV-EO (Foeniculum vulgare essential oil) displayed moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms, exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on the egg development, and was of low toxicity." ...
... "the dose-dependent decrease in the number of developed eggs in groups incubated with FV-EO at 100 mg/ml is a remarkable result."

Fennel seed as antibacterial and antifungal
... "the EO [essential oil of Fennel seeds] exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against the three tested bacteria. MICs [minimum inhibitory concentration] and MBCs [minimum bactericidal concentration] for bacteria ranged 0.781 to 25 µl/ml. The MIC values indicated that the fennel seed EO was active against all the fungal strains tested in the present study, and exhibited strong antifungal activity."

Tobacco, or levamisole as anthelmintic / dewormer vs Marshallagia marshalli intestinal worms
"The result showed that compared with Levamisole 50 mg/ml, dilution of 25 and 50 mg/ml of the aqueous extract had the same anthelminthic effects (P [ 0.05), but 75 mg/ml dilution of the aqueous extract and dilution of 25, 50 and 75 mg/ml of alcoholic extract had more anthelminthic effect (P < 0.05). Overall, extracts of Tobacco possess considerable anthelminthic activity and more potent effects were observed with the highest concentrations."

Lavender vs Giardia, Trichomonas, and Hexamita
"The study has demonstrated that low (< or = 1%) concentrations of L. angustifolia and L. x intermedia oil can completely eliminate T. vaginalis, G. duodenalis and H. inflata in vitro. At 0.1% concentration, L. angustifolia oil was found to be slightly more effective than L x intermedia oil against G. duodenalis and H. inflata. The potential applications are discussed."

Marjoram (Origanum majorana) vs antibiotic resistant Salmonella, E. coli, Shigella, Citrobacter, Proteus, and Pseudomonas bacteria.
"However, all tested isolates either Gram negative or Gram positive were susceptible to the action of 100% marjoram essential oil with a range of inhibition zone diameter values from 13.00 to 19.20mm. The results revealed that Salmonella was the most sensitive strain tested to the antibacterial action of marjoram essential oil with the strongest inhibition zone (19.20 mm) followed by E. coli (19.00 mm), Shigella(16.75 mm), Citrobacter (16.00 mm), Proteus (15.00 mm) and Pseudomonas species (14.00 mm)."

Elderberry (Sambucus n i g r a ) as antibiotic, antiviral, and immune system stimulant
"Elderberry extract from fruit and flowers appears to show some inhibitory effect against
many microorganisms including those found as nosocomial pathogens (hospital “super-bugs”) e.g. MRSA; HIV; Mycoplasmae; IBV coronavirus (an envelope virus), and influenza (and its bacterial super-infections). These effects may be stronger in-vivo than in-vitro. The immunomodulatory effects of S. ***** have been investigated and appear to show that the plant would be likely to stimulate the immune systems of the weak or immune-compromised. It has also been investigated to see whether it would exacerbate or mitigate a cytokine storm, and does not seem to make one worse and might dampen it."

Cinnamon and Citric Acid (lemon juice, for instance) for improved metabolism, immunity, and growth (of chickens)
"The addition of a phytobiotic containing cinnamon oil and citric acid to the drinking water of broiler chickens at a suitable dosage and for a suitable time can beneficially modify the microbiome composition and morphometry of the small intestine (total number of fungi p < 0.001, total number of aerobic bacteria p < 0.001; and total number of coliform bacteria p < 0.001 was decreased) improving the immunity and growth performance of the chickens (there occurred a villi lengthening p = 0.002 and crypts deepening p = 0.003)." ...
"Of the three doses (0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 mL/L water) of the phytobiotic containing cinnamon oil administered to chickens, the most beneficial was 0.25 mL/L water administered for 42 days. Chickens receiving the phytobiotic at 0.25 mL/L had the best growth performance, which was linked to the beneficial effect of the preparation on the microbiome and morphometry of the small intestine, on the metabolism, and on the immune and antioxidant systems."

Chicory vs Newcastle Disease Virus (Avian Paramyxovirus-1 PPMV-1 PMV)
"Analysis of variance of data revealed that addition of different levels of chicory leaf extract in drinking water exhibited significant effect (P<0.05) on ND [Newcastle Disease Virus] titer." ... "The higher level of antibody titer against ND in birds using chicory leaf extract may be due to its antimicrobial effect. Another possible reason might be the increased activity of neutrophils in blood after vaccination, which could play a major role to boost up the immunity (Guo et al., 2003). Similar results have been observed by Huff et al., (2003) and Sarwar (2013) as they reported increased immune-modulatory effect against ND and IBD in broiler. However, contrasted results may be due to the difference in way of supplementation of chicory (comparative vs. alone) in these trials." ... "Supplementation of different levels of chicory leaf extract as growth promoter revealed better performance in broilers in terms of body weight gain, efficiency of feed utilization, stabilization of serum metabolites with better immune response and hepatoprotective properties"

Neem, Guava, or Baycox (tortrazuril) vs Coccidiosis
"the crude extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves boosted the immunity level of diseased pigeons that resulted in reduction of oocyst count while the crude extract of guava (Psidium guajava) leaves prevented the diseased pigeons from getting secondary bacterial infection. Therefore, the crude extract of neem leaves can be recommended for the treatment of coccidiosis and, also, to enhance the prophylactic levels in pigeons."
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^ Both neem and guava extracts more effective against bloody diarrhea than was Baycox.
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^ Neem extract more effective at decreasing oocysts (zygotes) than was Baycox.

"During the trial it was noted that the anticoccidial drug Baycox only inhibited the clinical signs and did not boost the immunity and the immunity level was boosted by the aqueous extract of neem leaves."

Basil vs Trichomonas
"As regards O. basilicum oil treated culture, it showed 100 % inhibition of the parasitic growth with concentration of 30 μg/ml after 24 h incubation. Decrease of the trophozoites growth by 73.1 % was observed with concentration of 20 μg/ml after 24 h and complete inhibition (100 %) of growth after 48 h. Decrease of the trophozoites growth by 23.8 % was observed with concentrations of 10 μg/ml after 24 h, 78.4 % after 48 h and 95.6 % after 72 h till complete inhibition (100 %) of growth after 96 h" ...
"Concerning the viability and motility of O. basilicum oil treated culture, the higher the concentration and the longer the time of exposure the less the viability and motility percentage, concentration of 30 μg/ml showed 0 % viable and motile trophozoites after 24 h incubation. 20 μg/ml showed 26.9 % viable and 19 % motile trophozoites after 24 h, and decreased to 0 % for viability and motility after 48 h. 10 μg/ml showed 76.2 % viable and 70 % motile trophozoites after 24 h, 21.6 % viable and 15 % motile trophozoites after 48 h, 4.4 % viable and 0.9 % motile trophozoites after 72 h, and decreased to 0 % for viability and motility after 96 h"

Peganum harmala (wild rue, Syrian rue, African rue, esfand or espand, or harmel) alkaloid extract (harmine and harmaline) or metronidazole vs Canker
"Treatment of infected pigeons with alkaloids led to a full recovery after 3 d but with metronidazole total eradication of trophozoites was not achieved. 4. In conclusion, data of the present study suggested P. harmala is a potent natural anti-trichomonal agent, effective against T. gallinae."

Rose Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens var. roseum), or metronidazole vs Canker
"Treatment with MTZ 50 mg/kg after 4 days led to full recovery of infected pigeons, however EO [Essential oil of Rose Geranium] 50 mg/kg resulted in the same outcome after 5 days. No mortality or clinical side effects were seen in treated birds."

Artemisia sieberi or metronidazole vs Canker (Trichomonas gallinae)
"The [in vitro] results revealed high efficacy of A. sieberi EO against T. gallinae. At dose of 20 µg/ml, MTZ after 24 h incubation period resulted in no viable trophozoite in culture medium. While the 24 h MIC of A. sieberi EO was 10 µg/ml. The 48 h and 72 h MIC of MTZ were 20 and 10 µg/ml but these values for A. sieberi were 10 and 5 µg/ml, respectively. Mortality of trophozoites were confirmed by the lack of resumption of growth in the subsequent 48 h cultures."
"[in vivo] Artemisia sieberi EO at the dose of 50 mg/kg in the 3rd and 4th day of the treatment resulted in significant reduction in number of T. gallinae in comparison to all other groups (P<0.05). In the 4th day, no motile trophozoite was recovered from A. sieberi EO 50 mg/kg treated birds. One day later (the 5th day), A. sieberi EO 25 mg/kg led to full recovery of infected pigeons. For the dose of 25 mg/kg of MTZ treated pigeons, 7 days' time was spent to reach full recovery. No mortality was recorded for treatment groups and no clinical side effects were observed in treated birds."

Dill (Anethum graveolens) as antibacterial and antifungal
"The essential oil and different extracts of Anethum graveolens seeds exerted antimicrobial activity against wide range of microorganisms. The essential oils and acetone extracts shown antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella choleraesuis, S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mycobacterium. Anethum graveolens seed extracts have also been reported to possess anti-ulcer activity, and have shown moderate activity against Helicobacter pylori. Aqueous and organic extracts of seeds have exhibited potent antibacterial activity. The essential oils also active against three fungi (a yeast, Candida albicans and two molds, Penicillium islandicum and Aspergillus flavus). D-limonene and D-carvone, have exhibited strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. Many authors mentioned that the antimicrobial activities could be attributed to furanocoumarin in Anethum graveolens"

Garlic and honey vs avipoxvirus / pigeonpox / pigeonpoxvirus / pox
"The pigeon was treated for 7 days and the treatment protocol comprised of crushed garlic (Allium sativum) mixed with honey at 1:1 ratio and macerated with pestle and mortar. The mixture was applied on [topical] lesion washed after 20 minutes with distilled water and half teaspoonful of mixture was fed to pigeon orally twice daily. After three days of treatment animal showed recovery from lesion on mouth followed by lesions around eyes and lesion on beak were last to recover."

ACV, olive oil, almond oil, coconut oil, neem oil, and baking powder vs pigeonpox
Ayamanas' skin ointment for pigeons

Green tea vs Adenovirus (type 4, in chickens)
"Green tea extract was found most promising antiviral agent in-vitro having selective index (SI) 3.195 g/ml with minimum cell toxicity towards normal cells. Green tea extract showed maximum protection in broiler chicks against challenge in vivo with a survival rate of more than 90% at a dose rate of 100 mg/ml. Gross and histopathological lesion score was minimum in GTE treated group followed by EGCG EGC and ECG." ...
"Highest survival rate was observed in the birds treated with GTE followed by EGCG then EGC which was followed by ECG as shown in Figure 4. Among different concentrations of green tea extract 100 mg/ml gave maximum survival rate followed by 150 and 50 mg/ml."
^ Caffeine is apparently harmful to birds in some quantity. Green tea does contain caffeine. Decaffinated green tea is available which has less caffeine. It would probably be best to use either no green tea, or at least very diluted green tea for birds.

Propolis (produced by honeybees) vs Canker
"Propolis is a complex resinous material produced by honeybees from plant exudates, beeswax, and bee secretions (Kusumoto et al., 2001) and has protective function on honeycombs, especially against microrganisms"...
"high concentrations of aqueous propolis extract (100 and 75 mg/ml) and the minimum time (24 hours) caused 100% death of the parasites. While 50 mg/ml AEP [aqueous extract of propolis] caused 100% inhibition of growth of the T. gallinae trophozoite after 48 hours (Minimal lethal concentration)."

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East-Indian lemon grass / lemongrass (a.k.a Cochin grass, or Malabar grass, and Cymbopogon flexuosus), or metronidazole vs Canker
"Results: The in vitro test showed that the OE-CL [essential oil of Cymbopogon Lemongrass] (550 μg/ml) and N-CL [nanoemulsion of Cymbopogon lemongrass] (440 μg/ml) concentrations reduced the trophozoites viability in 100%. In the in vivo test, the treatment with OE-CL was efficient on the 4th treatment day and the N-CL after the 3rd day, and the MTZ in the therapeutic concentration was efficient on the 7th day."

Cinnamon (
Cinnamaldehyde), or metronidazole vs canker
Results showed that mortality rate of cinnamaldehyde at 100 μg/mL was 100% which did not differ significantly in comparison to metronidazole. In addition, in growth inhibition rate at 50 and 100 μg/mL of cinnamaldehyde and metronidazole, significant difference was not observed."

Flax vs coccidiosis and Capillaria (intestinal worms / hairworms / threadworms)
"Recently, experiments in our lab led to the discovery of rather unique anti-parasitic properties associated with compounds naturally present in flax seeds. One group of the flax biologicals showing anti-parasitic properties were isolated from seeds and was identified as small cyclic peptides termed cyclolinopeptides (CLPs)."
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"Of note, in comparison to control chickens, the numbers of oocysts in fecal matter of challenged birds treated with flax nano-emulsion considerably declined already on the 2nd day of treatment, and continued to decline over the next 3 days. On the second day, the number of oocysts was approximately 20 to 30% lower in the treated birds. On the 3rd day of treatment, the oocyst count in treated birds declined approximately 8 to 10 fold relative to controls, and by the 5th day on treatment the number of oocysts in feces of treated birds was below measurable detection limit.
Based on both in vitro and in vivo responses of pigeons naturally affected by capillaria and chickens challenged with coccidia, it appears that treatment with flax extracts may be an effective approach to control common intestinal parasites in birds. Since oocysts shed in the feces increase the risk of wide spread of coccidia infection in the flock, our observation allows inference that administration of flax extract will help to control coccidiosis."

Garlic + Black pepper, or metronidazole, or amprolium + piperazine vs coccidiosis and capillariasis
"This study evaluated the effect of garlic and black pepper against Eimeria columbae & Capillaria obsignata naturally infected 400 pigeons (Columba livia), fecal samples and crop swaps. Pigeons were divided into six groups of 10 pigeons each. G1: Control not treated. G2: Received 7 garlic cloves (9.13 gm / pigeon) orally as a single dose. G3: Received black pepper kernels (0.64 gm / pigeon) orally as a single dose. G4: Received orally garlic cloves (9.13 gm / pigeon) and 7 black pepper kernels (0.64 gm / pigeon). G5: Received Meterindazole® 250mg/liter of drinking water for three days. G6: Received a combination of 1 g Amprolium® & 2 g Piperazine® / liter drinking water for three days.
The results showed that E. columbae oocysts and C. obsignata eggs 2 & 5 days post-treatment significantly decreased (P< 0.05) compared to controls. Combined garlic and black pepper gave same effect as meterindazole and the other two."

Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood) or amprolium vs Coccidosis
"Another interesting aspect of the results reported here appears to be the fact that there were no significant differences between the growth performances of the broiler chicks provided with the commercial anticoccidial drug through the drinking water and those maintained on the Artemisia-supplemented diets. Whether at the starter or finisher phases, diet preparations containing 10 and 20%, respectively, of dried A. annua leaves gave comparable, and sometimes even better, growth indices than the broiler chicks treated with Amprolium that were maintained on the conventional broiler mash."

Diatomaceous earth vs Capillaria, Ascaridia, and Eimeria (intestinal parasites)
The pigeons were divided into two groups. Group I comprised 150 birds in five dovecotes. These birds were given grain (feed mix for pigeons, made by Kampol) and apart diatomite mixed with a mineral and vitamin additive (mineral complementary feed made by Bio- wet). Group II comprised 150 birds in the other five dovecotes. These birds were given grain (feed mix for pigeons, made by Kampol) mixed with diatomite." ...
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... "The experiment found that the number of parasite eggs in the Group I was reduced after a week following the application of diatomite, whereas the number of Capillaria nematode eggs and the proportion of Eimeria coccidia eggs decreased considerably in Group II (Figs 2, 3). It can be explained by the higher intake of diatomite added to the mineral complementary feed."

Virgin Coconut Oil for wound healing
"VCO-treated wounds healed much faster, as indicated by a decreased time of complete epithelization and higher levels of various skin components. Pepsin-soluble collagen showed a significant increase in VCO-treated wounds, indicating a higher collagen cross-linking.
Glycohydrolase activities were also found to be increased due to a higher turnover of collagen. Antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels were found to be increased on the 10th day after wounding, which were found to have returned to normal levels on day 14 in the treated wounds. The lipid peroxide levels were found to be lower in the treated wounds. A histopathological study showed an increase in fibroblast proliferation and neovascularization in VCO-treated wounds compared to controls. Conclusion: The beneficial effect of VCO can be attributed to the cumulative effect of various biologically active minor components present in it."

Olive Oil for wound healing
"In conclusion, supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in chronically stressed mice."

Black Pepper (piperine) enhances absorption and bioavailability of curcumin from Turmeric
"piperine enhances the serum concentration, extent of absorption and bioavailability of curcumin in both rats and humans with no adverse effects."
"Extensive scientific research on curcumin has demonstrated a wide spectrum of therapeutic effects which range from anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, antispasmodic, anticoagulant, antitumor activities and recently with potential utility in autoimmune deficiency syndrome."

Thankuni, or Neem, or Bishtakali, or Guava, or synthetic antibiotics vs Caniker
"Among the herbal plants, fresh juice of thankuni showed the highest efficacy (80%) at 20% concentration in in vitro condition whereas efficacy was 75% at same concentration in in vivo condition. This result could not be compared due to paucity of relevant literature. However, the plant contains sitosterol and tannin which have antiprotozoal activity (Daniel, 2005). Fresh juice of neem showed 71.42% efficacy at 20% concentration against Trichomonas gallinae, in vitro condition. On the other hand, in in vivo condition neem showed 66.66% efficacy at same concentration. This result could not be compared and contrasted due to lack of relevant literature. Neem has several medicinal uses. Neem leaves contains flavonid, quercetin, nimbiodol and tannins (Ghani, 2003). Flavonid, quercetin, nimbiodol (Khalid et al., 1986) and tannin (Daniel, 2005) have antiprotozoal activity. Besides this, neem leaves contain vitamin C, which also act as antioxidant (Kayser et al, 2002).
It was observed that, fresh juice of bishkatali showed 69.23% efficacy at 20% concentration against Trichomonas gallinae, in vitro condition. In vivo condition, bishkatali showed 66.66% efficacy at 20% concentration. This result could not be compared due to paucity of relevant literature. Bishkatali leaves contain flavonid and quercetin (Ghani, 2003) which have antiprotozoal activity (Khalid et al., 1986). In vitro condition, Fresh juice of guava showed 42.85% efficacy at 20% concentration against Trichomonas gallinae. On the other hand, in in vivo condition guava showed 41.66% efficacy at 20% concentration. This result could not be compared and contrasted due to lack of relevant literature. But guava has several medicinal uses. Guava leaves contain tannin (Ghani, 2003). Tannin has antiprotozoal activity (Daniel, 2005). Besides this, guava leaves contain vitamin C, which also act as antioxidant (Kayser et al, 2002)."

Cumin, Garlic, Black Pepper, Turmeric, Moringa oleifera, Neem, Holy Basil, Camphor, and Castor oil, vs Avian pox (in turkeys)
"Turkey pox is economically important disease and is caused by Avipox virus of the family Poxviridae. An outbreak of turkey pox in a turkey farm was recorded. 41 turkey poults showed droopiness, ruffled feathers, reduced appetite and body weight, fever and nodular lesions on head, face and neck. The size of the nodular lesions were between 3 mm to 6 mm diameter. Histopathological examination of the nodular lesions showed intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Affected birds were treated with oral and topical ethno-veterinary herbal preparations. Oral paste was prepared with Cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), garlic pulp (Allium sativum), black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), leaves of Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Ocimum sanctum. Topical application was prepared from leaves of Ocimum sanctum, Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera, garlic cloves, turmeric powder, seeds of cumin and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) were mixed and ground well and was heated with 100 ml of castor oil (Ricinus communis seed oil) and 100 ml of neem oil (A. indica seed oil). All the birds were showed marked recovery on fourth day of treatment."

Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) vs Newcastle Disease (in chickens)
"The present study was carried out to determine the immuno-modulatory effects of Asparagus racemosus extract treated feed and to analyze the role of T and B cells in host defense against Newcastle disease in one week old normal and immuno-compromized broiler chicks. After the treatment significant (P<0.01) positive effects were observed in both humoral and cell mediated immune responses of the birds which was found to be evident by increased antibody titer after Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The variation in skin thickness was significantly (P<0.01) more among the herbal treated groups rather than the non-treated groups which was a clear marker for immuno-stimulation among the birds." ...
"The use of A. racemosus dried root powder in a specific dose during the scheduled
vaccination regimen may be helpful in obtaining higher protective antibody against different vaccinations including more effective cell mediated immune response for protection against various bacterial, viral and other diseases."

Turmeric, Black pepper, and Ginger vs osteoarthritis
"Sixty patients with two different levels of knee osteoarthritis (Grade 2 and 3) were studied. Individuals were randomly assigned to receive daily turmeric extract, ginger, and black pepper together or Naproxen capsule for 4 weeks. PGE2 was evaluated by ELISA method. 24-hr recall was also assessed. All of participants completed the study. PGE2 decreased significantly in both groups (p < .001), but there was no significant differences between groups. The results of this study indicated that intake of the selected herbs twice a day for 4 weeks may improve the PGE2 levels in patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis similar to Naproxen drug."

Parsley as antibacterial and antifungal
"the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and beta-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent."

Ginger, Turmeric, or praziquantel vs Raillietina cesticillus (intestinal worms)
"Praziquantel at a concentration of 600 mg was added to 10 ml media. A control one without extract was reported. Regression of worms increased gradually in all concentrations. At 500 mg ginger (50 ± 0 %), worms were regressed at 48 h post-exposure (h.p.e.). Also (50 ± 1.8 %), worms were regressed at 1000 mg curcumin at the same time. On the other hand, praziquantel showed the highest regression (65 ± 2.3 %). The extract efficacy was exhibit as concentration-time-dependent mainly at higher concentrations used after 48 h. In vivo effects of ginger and curcumin were lower than those in vitro."

Ginger vs Toxoplasma gondii
"In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that GE/F1 [ginger extract, fraction 1] not only has anti-T. gondii effects causing the direct inhibition of T. gondii but also inhibits the activation of apoptotic proteins (p53, p21, caspase-3, and bax) induced by T. gondii proliferation in infected host cells. The results also indicate that GE/F1 has antiparasitic properties which are able to maintain the survival of T. gondii-infected mice."

Ginger vs arthritis and bone mineral density loss
"All three extracts were bone protective in streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis, preventing bone mineral density (BMD) loss as determined by dual energy absorptiometry (PIXIMUS). The crude extract was more effective than the gingerol-only extract (80% vs. 51% inhibition, p < 0.05). The isolated essential oils were also bone protective (14% inhibition, p < 0.05). Preservation of BMD correlated with antiarthritic efficacy, suggesting that blockade of bone resorption occurred secondary to inhibition of joint inflammation."

Ginger as antibacterial
"The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial activity of Hydro-alcoholic extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Mallow (Malva sylvestris) against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenesis as a number of important factors and infectious microorganisms." ...
"Ginger extract showed strong antibiotic effects on all studied bacterial strains"

Garlic, Ginger, or Lime as antifungals
"Growth results showed high but varied levels of antimicrobial effectiveness. Ginger showed the highest antimicrobial effect against all the test fungi (P<0.01) followed by garlic (P<0.05) and then lime (P<0.01) in Aspergillus species but not in effective on C. herbarum (P>0.05) using ethanol extraction. In the water (aqueous) base extraction medium, lime exhibited the highest antimicrobial (antifungal) effect (P<0.01) on all test fungi, followed by garlic (P<0.01) on Aspergillus species,(P<0.05) on C. herbarum whilst ginger was ineffective on Aspergillus species (P>0.05) but highly fungicidal on C. herbarum (P<0.01). Thus water base extraction technique was the most effective in inducing antifungal properties of lime whiles ethanol base extraction technique was the best for ginger. Garlic on the other hand exhibited a good antimicrobial (antifungal) property in both ethanol and water extraction media. The study thus confirms the antifungal properties of these medicinal plants and suggests the type of extraction to yield the best results"

Ginger and/or honey as antibacterials
"Among the bacterial test isolates, E. coli was the most inhibited with the pasture honey (20 mm), ginger ethanol extract (18 mm) and the mixture of honey and ginger ethanol extract (32 mm). S. aureus was most inhibited with the mixture of honey and ginger methanol extract with 3.0 mm followed by the mixtures of honey and ethanol ginger extract with 26 mm inhibitory potency. B. cereus, S. typhi and K. pneumoniae was also inhibited under that trend as 24 mm 22 mm, 26 mm 22 mm, and 18 mm 20 mm respectively" ... "Some of the standard antibiotics as tetracyclin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, cloxacillin and penicillin were not effective on the test bacterial isolates. All the test organisms were susceptible to gentamycin with inhibitory zones of between 10-25 mm and streptomycin between 8- 20 mm (Table 5). Though the test organisms were susceptible to other antibiotics, their susceptibility to the mixture of honey and the ginger extracts had higher values." ... "This experiment also showed that honey and ginger extracts possess differences in antibacterial activities. Honey in its saturated solution of sugar will cause osmotic effect on the bacteria and ginger in its spicy nature with free radical inhibitions index performs other toxic factors which of course responded to the antibacterial effect observed in the study."

Garlic and/or ginger as antibacterials
"Both garlic and ginger have antibacterial activity (especially when combined together). Garlic and ginger have activity on both G+ve and G-ve bacteria (except Streptococcus pyogens). There are several advantages for the use of spices (that derived from plant origins) as dietary supplement or alternative medicine manifested by reduction the chance for developing antibiotic-resistant bacteria that resulted from the frequent use of antibiotics (misuse, abuse), beside decreasing the cost of treatment (drug administration) and also minimizes the development of adverse drug reactions."

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Fenugreek vs heat stress in pigeon squabs
"Thermonatural group squabs (TG) reared in 22 ºC, were fed basal diet, while heat-stress group reared in 34 ºC, and subdivided into 5 groups; heat-stress group was allotted to basal diet (HG) and four groups allotted to basal diet supplemented with different feed additives as natural feed additives (Moringa olifera (H1G) or fenugreek seeds (H2G)) and chemical feed additives (premix (H3G) or yeast (H4G)). Results showed that, Fenugreek seeds group (H2G) had more potent effect to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress on squab behaviors, performance, biochemical parameters and growth hormone, whereas the Moringa olifera, yeast and premix groups also have beneficial impact in alleviation the negative effect of heat stress, but less than Fenugreek seeds. In conclusion we could recommended the usage of 2 % Fenugreek seeds as feed additives to improve pigeon squab behavior, performance, welfare and biochemical parameters during heat stress condition."

Cade (Juniperus oxycedrus), Manuka, or Thyme vs red feather mites
"Fifty plant essential oils were selected for their toxicity to arthropods reported in the literature. Twenty-four of these essential oils were found to kill > 75% of adult D. gallinae in contact toxicity tests over a 24-h period at a rate of 0.21 mg/cm2. Subsequent testing at lower rates showed that the essential oils of cade, manuka and thyme were especially toxic to adult D. gallinae. The toxicity of the seven most acaricidal essential oils was found to be stable at different temperatures likely to be encountered in commercial poultry housing (15°C, 22°C and 29°C), although results suggest that humidity and dust might influence the toxicity of some of the oils tested. The toxicity of clove bud essential oil to D. gallinae, for example, was increased at high humidity and dust levels compared with ambient levels."
Sci-Hub | Environmental interactions with the toxicity of plant essential oils to the poultry red miteDermanyssus gallinae. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 24(1), 1–8 | 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2009.00855.x

Shih Baladi (Artemisia judaica L.) vs Blastocystis
"A. judaica was selected as the herb of choice considering all of its variables and because of its effective action against Blastocystis. It was then exposed to further fractionation and observation of its effect on ST1 and ST3. Solvent portioned fractions (dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-hexane) in A. judaica were found to be the potent active fractions against both of the Blastocystis subtypes used."

Thyme (thymol) for burn wound healing
Organism Natural material Red Terrestrial plant Magenta

"To address the complications in third degree burns, thymol enriched bacterial cellulose hydrogel (BCT) was developed in this study. The incorporation of thymol into bacterial cellulose along with its chemical and thermal changes were investigated by FTIR, TGA and DSC respectively. Antimicrobial studies revealed that BCT possess excellent biocidal activity against burn specific pathogens. The in vitro biocompatibility studies were carried out in mouse 3T3 fibroblast cells. The BCT hydrogel facilitated the growth of fibroblast cells, exhibiting low toxicity, and increased cell viability. The burn wound healing efficiency of the BCT hydrogel was examined in vivo using female albino Wistar rats. Histopathological studies reveal that the wound treated with BCT hydrogel showed faster wound closure than BC and control groups. All these findings, suggest that BCT hydrogel can be used as resourceful and natural burn wound dressing material."

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) as antibacterial, immune booster, and aid to probiotic intestinal bacteria (in quail)
"The caecal Coliform, E. coli and Salmonella were lowered (P < 0.0001) in the quails treated with all LGEO [lemongrass essential oil] levels, but the total bacterial count and Lactobacillus count were increased with dietary supplementation of LGEO levels (300 and 450 mg/kg) compared with those in the control group. The activities of digestive enzymes were significantly higher in birds fed the diet supplemented with LGEO levels than those fed the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of LGEO can improve the performance, lipid profile, immunity and antioxidant indices and decline intestinal pathogens and thus boost the health status of growing quail"

Black seed (Nigella Sativa) alleviates negative effects of chronic synthetic antibiotic use
"Chronic administration of oxytetracycline (OXT) (incorporated at a level of 0.05 g per kg of feed for 50 days) to pigeons, significantly decreased total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts, increased heterophil:lymphocyte ratio and lysosomal enzyme activity, and decreased reticuloendothelial system function compared with controls. Coadministration of black seed (BS) at a level of 2.5% with OXT completely blocked the effects elicited by OXT and produced immunostimulant effects in pigeons. The addition of BS to feed of pigeons could act as an immunoprotective agent when chronic administration of antibiotics are considered."

Thyme (oil of Thymus musilii Velen) as antibacterial and antifungal
"This thymol-chemotype oil was active against all microorganisms tested with an inhibition growth zone ranging from 21.33 ± 1.52 mm for Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) to 37.33 ± 1.15 mm for Candida vaginalis (C. vaginalis) strain. Overall, the tested oil exhibited bactericidal and fungicidal activities and only a small quantity of the tested essential oil was found to be sufficient for inhibiting the growth of the tested microorganisms. Furthermore, molecular docking results implies that, among the bioactive compounds, β-caryophyllene interacted strongly with the active site residues of TyrRS, GLMS and Gyrase enzymes and consequently support our in vitro results with the highest inhibition potential of this essential oil against tested pathogens, especially Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli)."

Lavender with Rosemary, Spanish Sage, or Zaatar as antibacterials
"The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that L. pedunculata aqueous extract from Morocco exerts an important antibacterial activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, this activity is boosted when L. pedunculata extract is used in mixtures with S. rosmarinus, S. lavandulifolia and O. compactum. Some active compounds were investigated, and all the extracts were shown to contain high amounts of polyphenols and tannins. These results represent a first step in investigating the use of L. pedunculata aqueous extracts by the Moroccan population. Furthermore, these results showed the effectiveness of the alternative and combinative polyphytotherapy. This suggests that L. pedunculata aqueous extract could be used as a new potential source of natural antibacterial agents either alone or in combination with S. rosmarinus, S. lavandulifolia and O. compactum. It might be an effective solution for resistant bacteria that cause damage around the world, such as S. aureus."

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extracts) vs Toxoplasma gondii
"Treatment with a mixture of rosemary extracts displayed reduction rates of 81% for T. gondii cyst burden and 23% for cyst viability. The reinfected group with the pretreated cysts reported 93.4% reduction in cyst burden and 95.4% in cyst viability. Moreover, 90% reduction of the infectivity rate was obtained. The therapeutic efficacy of this mixture was superior to its valuable prophylactic effect. Histopathological examination of liver and brain tissue exhibited marked improvement. Both extracts possess free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities"

Black Pepper (Piperine) and fluconazole vs Yeast (Candida albicans)
"Piperine inhibit Candida albicans growth (planktonic and biofilm) significantly in our study. Piperine exhibits excellent synergistic potential with fluconazole The proteome analysis suggests that piperine induced membrane damage leads to oxidative stress followed by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis."
Sci-Hub | Oxidative stress induced by piperine leads to apoptosis in Candida albicans. Medical Mycology | 10.1093/mmy/myaa058

Basil or piperazine (dewormer) vs Ascaris suum (roundworms)
"Concentration of basil leaves infusion 15% was the best concentration to kill A. suum within 36 hours compared to 1% of piperazine citrate and other basil leaves infusions."

Coconut and onion vs intestinal worms
" In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died. It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. In addition, the same composition was effective against the intestinal fluke E. caproni, but not against the liver fluke F. hepatica in the final host, while both worms were killed in vitro. Inoculation of fluids of coconut eliminated T. taeniaeformis tapeworms from naturally infected cats."

Nigella Sativa (black cumin, black seed) and/or ivermectin vs intestinal worms
"Forty naturally infected adult Aseel chickens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 each): group A (ivermectin at 300 μg/kg); group B (N. sativa extract at 200 mg/kg); group C (ivermectin at 300 μg/kg + N. sativa extract at 200 mg/kg); group D was kept as a positive control to monitor time-related changes. On day 28 post treatment, the mean percentages of faecal egg-count reduction (FECR %) in groups A, B and C were recorded as 93.58, 88.09 and 100.00%, respectively." ...
"The synergistic combination of ivermectin and N. sativa extract possessed greater efficacy than either ivermectin or N. sativa extract used alone."
Comparative efficacy of ivermectin and Nigella sativa against helminths in Aseel chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) | Angel, C.; Akhter, N.; Arijo, A.; Qureshi, T.A.; Gandahi, J.A.; Qazi, I.H. | download

Carnation flower tea vs intestinal worms
"Two types of aqueous extract of plant were prepared (hot and cold) from the flower of Carnations plant to evaluate in vitro the inhibitory effect on the activity and survival of cestodes from genus Raillietina spp., that infest pigeons. The chemical drug (Albendazole) was prepared which is an important drug to treat the parasites infection, to compare it with the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract. The results showed that the 20 mg/ml-1 concentration of hot aqueous extract has clear effects on the worms in 3.33 hours, compared with control group (41 hours) and Albendazole at same concentration after 1.41 hours, while the cold aqueous extract showed the inhibitory effect in (5.36) hours. From this study we can conclude that the hot aqueous extract of Carnations has highly inhibitive effect on activity and life of worms in 20 mg/ml-1 which is the same inhibition effect of Albendazole but without noxious effects." Full text: http://www.iasj.net/iasj/download/6a5f66066607afe3

Sohphlang (Fleminga vestita) vs intestinal worms
"The natives of Meghalaya, North-East India, consume the unpeeled root tuber of Flemingia vestita in order to get rid of intestinal helminth parasites. In order to evaluate and authenticate the use of this medicinal plant as an anthelmintic, the isoflavones of the root peel extract of F. vestita were isolated and identified [1]. Besides formononetin, pseudobaptigenin and diadzein, genistein (Fig. 1) is found to be the major isoflavone present in the root peel extract of F. vestita. It acts as vermifugal against several intestinal trematodes and cestodes [2,3]. These isoflavones, genistein in particular, cause flaccid paralysis and structural changes in the tegument (deformity, blebbing, vacuolization) in Raillietina echinobothrida, the cestode of domestic fowl [4]; the activities of several tegumental enzymes in the parasite are also altered under the anthelmintic stress of these isoflavones [5]. The activities of non-specific esterases, acetyl-choline esterease in particular, are also shown to be effected by the test material [6].
Since carbohydrate is a major energy source for cestode and trematode parasites, the anthelmintic efficacy of this medicinal plant was tested with respect to carbohydrate metabolism of the cestode parasite, R. echinobothrida."

Carrot, Garlic, Wormwood, Mugwort, Caraway, Royal Knight's-spur, Elecampane, Walnut pericarp, Summer Savory, or Valerian vs intestinal worms
"In conclusion, all ethanol extracts from 16 Czech medicinal plants tested showed anthelmintic effects in vitro against eggs of A. suum and larvae of T. colubriformis. The extracts of A. sativum, A. absinthium, C. regalis, C. carvi, I. helenium, J. regia, S. hortensis, and V. officinalis showed the best activity against the infective third-stage larvae of T. colubriformis in the LMI test, and a significant anthelmintic effect on egg embryogenesis (A. suum) was demonstrated by extracts from A. sativum, A. absinthium, C. carvi, D. carota, and J. regia."

Betel Nut, Tamarind, Carrot, Black Seed, or Holy Basil vs worms
"The present work suggests that the folkloric claim of Areca catechu (Betel Nut) seeds, Tamarindus indica Linn seeds, Daucus Carota L. root, Nigella sativa Linn seeds, and Ocimum tenuiflorum leaves ethnobotanicals as anthelmintics have been confirmed as all the plants showed activity against earthworms being used in the study."

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Climbing Wattle (a.k.a Climbing Acacia), or albendazole vs intestinal worms (tapeworms, in chickens)
"Assessment of the survival indicated that the plant extract caused concentration-dependent effects comparable to that of albendazole, with significant mortality (P < 0.5 by student’s t-test) of the test worms at all concentrations tested in comparison with those of the control group. Morphological observations using scanning electron microscope revealed that the tapeworms in the 20 mg/mL plant extract treatment group exhibited profound structural damages. The scolex became massively shrunken, with the special attachment organs reduced to crooked appendages. Overall deformation of the tegument was apparent throughout the body surface. All the body segments shrivelled up, deflated and wrinkled into fluffy folds. The fine hairy microtriches completely disappeared, and replaced by an irregular mass of conglomerate tissues."

Bitter Leaf (a.k.a. Congo Bololo), or Tephrosia Vogelii (a.k.a fish bean), or piperazine (dewormer) vs intestinal worms (Ascaridia galli roundworms, in chickens)
"The results have demonstrated that the extracts of the two plants have significant activity against the chicken parasite Ascaridia galli and can be integrated in indigenous chicken health management system."

Hummingbird Tree or Turkey Berry vs intestinal worms
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"The aqueous extracts of the leaves and fruits of S. grandiflora and S. torvum recorded a definite anthelmintic efficacy against A. galli in the present investigation (Table 3 and 4). Both the aqueous extracts exhibited dose dependency. Increasing the concentration of the extracts decreased the survival of A. galli.
Though both the extracts were with potent anthelmintic activity, the aqueous extract of S. torvum fruits were more effective as it is fatal to the parasite in a lower concentration after 36 hours of exposure period when compared to S. grandiflora leaves. However, in the early exposure periods (12 and 24 hours) aqueous leaf extract of S. grandiflora was found to be effective (Table 5)."

Pineapple peel juice or levamisole vs intestinal worms
"To provide an alternative and organic approach for the treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes in chicken, the present study explored the in vivo efficacy of pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit peeling juice (PFPJ) in 1-2 month-old native chickens naturally co-infected with common roundworm ( A. galli) and cecal worms (H. gallinarum). The anthelmintic activity of PFPJ was evaluated based on the following parameters: mean fecal egg per gram (EPG) count, percent fecal egg count reduction test (%FECRT) (Coles et al 1992), total worm recovery and selected performance parameters, i.e. weight gain, PCV and weight of three reticuloendothelial organs.
Significant reduction of the mean EPG count was observed across time. Also, PFPJ treated chickens showed at least 90% AM FECR on the 14th day, which indicates effective anthelmintic activity (Kassai, 1999). Reduction in EPG count could be attributed to the death and expulsion of the nematodes as evident by the low total worm count among PFPJ treated groups."

Pineapple leaves extract vs intestinal worms
"Infected chickens were treated with pineapple leaves extract @ 1ml/kg body weight per OS for 7 consecutive days. The efficacy of anthelmintic treatment was evaluated by counting fecal egg per gram (EPG) compared with pretreatment values. Body weight and hematological changes of each chicken was recorded in pre and post treatment. In the untreated control chickens the average EPG increased from 300 ± 11.07 to 340 ± 13.96. The average EPG reduced from 300 ± 11.07 to 60 ± 7.40 within 28 days of pineapple treatment. The mean body weight gain in treated chicken was significantly (p<0.01) higher than the control. Pineapple leaves extract increased the TEC, Hb and PCV and decreased TLC and ESR values of chickens. But in control group TEC, Hb and PCV decreased and TLC and ESR values increased. It may be concluded that pineapple leaves extract treatment effectively reduced the ascariasis load in chicken and improved body weight."

Senna (Cassia occidentalis), or piperazine, or ivermectin vs intestinal worms
"The mean worm mortality for A. galli was significantly higher for the extract than for piperazine at 16 and 20mg/ml (p<0.05) and 24 mg/ml concentrations (p<0.01). Activity against H. gallinarum was not significantly different from that of ivermectin. The EC50 of the extract was 11.78mg/ml for A. galli and 17.78mg/ml for H. gallinarum. The extract is safe according to OECD acute toxicity guidelines since no mortality and toxicity signs were observed in mice even at 25,000mg/kg."

Fig tree (leaf and fruit) juice, or tetracycline and surgical removal vs pigeonpox / pigeonpoxvirus / pox blisters
"The therapeutic effect of topical applications of fig tree latex (Ficus carica) on avian pox lesions in pigeon (Columba domestica) in comparison with surgical dressing and topical application of tetracycline ointment 3% were evaluated. Fifteen infected pigeons with mixed infection of both cutaneous and diptheric forms of pox have typical lesions on head, eyelids, inside mouth, cere, base of beak, legs, and feet were used in this study. Birds were divided into three equal groups (5 birds) for each group. Group one (G1) was treated twice daily (BID) with tetracycline ointment 3% applied directly on the lesions, after cleaning of the lesions and removal of the external scabs. Group two (G2) was treated once a day (during night only), for ten successive days with fig tree latex applied directly on lesions. Group three (G3) was left without treatment as a control group. The activity of the birds, consumption of feed, regression of nodules was monitored daily till the end of the experiment. In both G1 and G3 groups, the pox lesions remained as they were (persisted as such and did not regressed). The activity of the birds fastly declined from unable to fly, to limited movement, depression, decrease feeding and death within 6 days from the beginning of treatment. The fig tree latex (G2) treated birds survived, the activity of the birds and consumption of the feed increased from the 4th day of treatment. The pox lesions regressed and atrophied and disappeared within 10 days of treatment and by this time all birds returned to the normal life. In conclusion, the fig tree latex has beneficial effect in treating the pox lesions with unclear mechanisms of action."

White Wormwood or albendazole vs intestinal worms
"Artemisia herba-alba is widely used in the Egyptian folk medicine as vermifuge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proclaimed anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous extracts of A. herba-alba, ACEA, in comparison to albendazole, ABZ, againstHeterakis gallinarum infecting turkey poults. 60, 1 day old large white turkey poults (males) were divided into four groups. Group 1 was neither infested nor treated. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with 500 embryonated eggs of H. gallinarum at 1 day old. On day 25 post infestation and for three successive days, group 3 was treated with ABZ, 2.5% (20 mg/kg B. wt.) and group 4 was treated with ACEA (0.4 g/kg B. wt.) in drinking water. The whole experiment had been repeated three times. Seven days post treatments, ABZ and ACEA reduce egg output (97.31 and 97.78%, respectively), and worm burden of H. gallinarum (95.08 and 96.07%, respectively). The weight and feed conversion ratios were improved in group 4. Biochemical analysis and histopathological sections revealed the adverse effect of ABZ. ACEA is then considered as a good anthelmintic alternative therapy and recommended in the control of ascaridosis in poultry industry, since it is effective, safe, available and cheap."

Papaya vs intestinal worms
"For this purpose, the anthelmintic effect of both aqueous and methanolic extracts of C. papaya (seeds) was evaluated. Aqueous extract of C. papaya was found to be 93.33% effective against the deshelled larvae of A. galli at 60 mg/ml concentration. Adult motility assay revealed that the C. papaya aqueous extract was 100% effective in killing the adult worms of A. galli @ 20mg/ml. The anthelmintic effect was concentration and time dependent. The in vivo trials revealed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya @ 40 mg/ kg was effective in reducing the egg counts by 90.47% and the total worm count by 83.66% at 15 day post treatment."

Acacia caesia or albendazole vs intestinal worms
"The effects of the methanol extract of Acacia caesia Linnaeus (Mimosaceae) stem bark were examined on the avian gastrointestinal cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida Megnin. In vitro treatments of the cestodes with different concentrations, viz, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg ml-1, of the plant extract indicated that the plant extract caused dose-dependent paralytic and mortality effects similar to that of albendazole, with significant mortality (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. However, the plant extract showed significant lethal effect only at the higher concentrations such as 5, 10, and 20 mg ml-1 while albendazole was effective at all concentrations tested. Scanning electron microscopy of the cestode treated with 20 mg ml-1 of the plant extract showed profound morphological alterations which were the deliberate hallmark effects of anthelmintic drugs. Devastating obliteration of tegumental surface, focal erosion and degeneration of the microtriches of the proglottids, and distortion of suckers on the scolex were clearly discernible. The plant extract thus showed profound anthelmintic effects and apparently acted trans-tegumentally to cause morphological damages."

Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) or albendazole vs intestinal worms
"An extract of the whole underground parts was prepared in Soxhlet apparatus using chloroform as a solvent. After concentrating in a vacuum rotary evaporator, the extract was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anthelmintic activity was tested in vitro against the tapeworm Raillietina tetragona and the roundworm Ascaridia galli. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the structural changes on the helminths after treatment with the plant extract." ... "The plant extract was significantly effective on both the helminths and showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activity as that of albendazole. The tapeworm treated with the plant extract showed deformities on the suckers, clumping of the spines, tegumental folds and erosion of microtriches. Extensive damage was also seen on the roundworm including cuticular shrinkage, collapse of the lips, and formation of warty surface throughout the body." ... "I. cylindrica extract effectively killed and caused detrimental effects on parasitic tapeworm and roundworm. The study therefore validates the traditional usage among the Mizo people, and guarantees further investigation on the exact compound(s) and mechanism of action."

Buckwheat and honey for wound healing
"The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an ointment of honey bee and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the management of large dermal wound in a male rabbit wounded accidently. The wound was covered entirely by honey and then the fine powder of buckwheat grains was added. The treatment was applied once a day until complete epithelization has taken place. The results showed a complete resorption of inflammatory exsudate of wound at 4th day. The percentage of wound contraction has shown a rate of 5.55% at the 4th, it has risen to 32.22 and 71.48% at days 7 and 11 respectively to register 99.53% at the 26th days. The epithelization period was 27 days with a mean healing rate of 200 mm2 day−1. The study concludes that the ointment of honey and buckwheat stimulate the healing process in dermal wounds particularly in term of wound contraction."

Lentils as prebiotic, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, nephroprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-obesity, hypolipidemic and chemopreventive
"Lentils containing flavonoids and lectins have been reported as non-toxic and safe for use in medical diagnostic kits. A bioactive peptide called “defensing”, which is isolated from germinated lentil seeds, possesses a broad spectrum of biological activities, including antimicrobial activities against various infections associated with bacteria and fungi." ...
"The consumption of lentil seeds reduces the incidence of various cancers including colon, thyroid, liver, breast and prostate" ...
"When comparing to pulses, lentils have the highest starch content and insoluble dietary fiber content and high quantities of prebiotic carbohydrates that maintain the gut microbiota, which prevents colon-associated diseases." ...
"These polyphenol-rich lentil seeds have antioxidant potential and a primary function in protecting against various diseases such as diabetes, obesity, CVD and cancer."

Peas as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal
"In conclusion, our investigation indicated that the peel of pea extracts represent a source of active compounds essentially phenols and flavonoids with antioxidant activity and an in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity. Also, the ethyl acetate extract showed an antibacterial and antifungal activity."

Lemon juice and thyme in drinking water vs heat stress (in chickens)
"Concurrent usage of 0.5% thyme and 2 mL/L of lemon juice increased FI and BWG by 229 and 165 g, respectively. Addition of 0.5% and 1% thyme to the diet and 2 ml/L lemon juice to drinking water reduced the serum triglycerides concentration by 9.8, 11.1 and 8.5 mg/dL, respectively (P≤0.05). It is concluded that the concurrent administration of 0.5% of thyme to diet and 2 mL/L lemon juice to drinking water provides a potential protective management strategy in preventing heat-stress-related reduction in the performance of broiler chickens."

Lemon juice in drinking water vs heat stress (in chickens)
"The experimental groups were fed as follows: in the control and test groups (groups A and B), birds were fed a standard diet. In the test group (group B), 5 ml/L of lemon juice was added to the drinking water for 30 days. At the end of each week, eggs with broken and fragile shellwere recorded. Our results showed that the addition of lemon juice in drinking water was significantly reduced eggs with broken and fragile shells during heat stress (P<0.05). Based on findings, it is concluded that lemon juice can be considered as a natural supplement to alleviate heat stress in laying hens under hot climate."

Lemon juice in drinking water vs heat stress (in chickens)
"The overall study conclude that, the Citrus limon juice, herbal vitamin C and synthetic vitamin C has beneficial significant effect in alleviating the Summer stress in broiler chicken. However, the better results were found with Citrus limon juice as compared to herbal and synthetic vitamin C."

Black seed, ginger, fennel, red chili peppers, thyme, rosemary, dill, chicory, moringa, coriander, cinnamon, licorice, and other herbs vs. heat stress in poultry (including pigeons)
"The adverse effect of increased environmental temperature during summer season on avian industry has received great global concern. High temperature leads to severe economic loss in poultry production, because it is considered as valuable stress factor. Several practical methods were used to alleviate the adverse impact of increased temperature; among them were dietary modifications. So, several types of herbs are supplemented to reduce the deleterious influences of thermal stress altitudes in various ani- mals, and even to prevent their adverse impacts. Therefore, sustainable supports for dietary modification based on herbs supplementations are largely needed, particularly when consider the additional advan- tages of herbs such as availability, actual efficiency, low cost, as well as their free from residual impact and antibiotic resistance. Numerous types of herbs were concluded to their efficient properties by poultry breeders to overcome a variety of the harmful effects of high ambient temperature."
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